701 Study Guide

701 Practical Examination Example






The aim of this module is to equip professionals involved with crisis intervention and trauma management with skills to enable them to empower and support victims of traumatic incidents. It also aims to empower employees of disaster management centers to overcome the symptoms of posttraumatic stress and burn-out that result from their long-term exposure to traumatic incidents and the victims of trauma. Thirdly it aims to provide professionals involved with victim empowerment with the knowledge and capabilities to gain a clear understanding of the needs of community members and trauma victims and to help members of communities to develop the coping skills necessary to develop resilience in the face of adversity.




Due to the specialized nature of the field of psycho-traumatology learners will only be admitted if they are qualified in the following professions: nurses, medical doctors, social workers or related professions. Students who have completed a semester course in Basic Counseling Skills will also be accepted for the course. Prior learning will be recognized depending on the level and nature of the learning experience of the learner involved. The merits of each request for the recognition of prior learning will be considered individually.




On completion of this module the learner must be able to:


Module 1: Describe the process of crisis intervention and trauma management, including:


a. Definitions of a crisis, victim and victim empowerment

b. The basic principles involved trauma intervention

c. Comparisons of different action-oriented models of crisis intervention

d. The basic tasks involved with the process of empowering and supporting victims

e. Apply the basic principles of crisis intervention to case studies and a person to

person interview.

                                                                  (25 notional learning hours)


Module 2: To describe the impact of traumatic experiences on victims and disaster management including:


a. Symptoms of Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder

b. Acute Stress Disorder

c. Burnout in professional and voluntary crisis workers

d. Assessment techniques used to determine the impact of traumatic experiences on survivors


                                                                   (25 notional learning hours)


Module 3: To describe the processes involved in trauma management for victims of different types of crises, including:


a. Psychological consequences, coping strategies and management of principle of o Natural disasters

   o Man-made disasters

   o Family and sexual violence

   o Injury, chronic and life threatening illness


b. the analysis of case studies involving crisis intervention processes with victims of above-mentioned disasters and to make suggestions regarding the implementation of effective crisis intervention strategies.


                                                                  (25 notional learning hours)


Module 4: To describe, appraise and apply four selected psychosocial conceptual frameworks for utilization in trauma management with specific reference to the traumatized child. On completion of this section learners should be able to:


a. Outline and appraise the strengths perspective and resiliency enhancing model as point of departure to empower individuals, families, groups and communities during crisis intervention by means of describing and distinguishing the philosophy, concepts, principles and language of the strengths perspective and resiliency enhancing model.


b. Outline and appraise the ecological perspective as point departure to explore and describe the reciprocal impact of individuals, families, groups and communities and environmental systems by means of:

   o Elucidating the foundations of the perspective

   o Distinguishing the levels of the ecological model and the implications thereof for victim empowerment

   o Evaluating the value of an ecological approach


c. Outline and appraise the process of participatory action as point of departure in trauma management

   o Comprehend the philosophy of participatory action in empowering the individual, family, group and community

   o Formulate a definition of participatory action

   o Outline the process of participatory action

   o Explain the principles of participatory action as a vehicle for planning prevention, intervention and postvention programs so that those concerned will take responsibility and ownership of it.


d. Outline and appraise the shattered assumption theory as point of departure in trauma management:

   o Comprehend the philosophy of the shattered assumption theory in the healing process of the individual, family, group and community

   o Explain the impact of the features of a traumatic event on planning prevention, intervention and postvention programs.


e. Distinguish reactions a child may experience during loss and trauma


f. Apply and discuss the named conceptual frameworks to bereaved and traumatized children in planning services on a prevention, intervention and postvention level in trauma management

 g. Outline children’s rights as spelled out by the South African Constitution Act 108 of 1996 Section 2 and the African charter on the Rights and Welfare of the African Child (www.soulcity.org.za/publications/9childrens_rights_booklet.pdf)

 h. Outline the family processes in coping with loss and trauma during childhood and adolescence.


                                                                                    (40 notional learning hours)


Module 5: To describe and apply pro-active and preventative models of victim empowerment through the process of:


a. developing a training programme focusing on learning essential coping strategies for the prevention of victimization and for the promotion of resilience and well- being of community members


b. debriefing of emergency services/human services personnel to counteract burnout and compassion fatigue.


                                                                                     (35 notional learning hours)





Read the prescribed chapters of James and Gilliland (2005) and integrate the additional reading material with it.


4.1. (Module 1) To enable you to describe the process of crisis intervention and trauma management, read chapters 1, 2 and 3 of James and Gilliland (2005, pp3 – 85) and chapter 15 of Everly and Lating (1995, pp 245 – 264) as well as chapters 1,2,3 of Greenstone and Leviton (2002, pp. 1 -34)


Make sure you can:

• define the concepts crisis, victim and victim empowerment

• describe the basic principles involved with trauma intervention

• compare the different action-oriented models of crisis intervention

• explain the basic tasks involved with the process of empowering and supporting



4.2 (Module 2) To enable you to describe the impact of traumatic experiences on victims and disaster management employees, read chapters 4, 5, 9 and 13 of James and Gilliland (2005, p 91 – 173; p 325 – 361 and p. 470 – 507) as well as Lating and Everly (1995, p.27-47)


Make sure you can:

• explain the symptoms of PTSD, Acute Stress Disorder and Burnout

• describe the role of loss or bereavement in the experience of trauma

• suggest specific measurement for the assessment of PTSD and lethality.


4.3 (Module 3) To get an overview of the different types of crises and the intervention principles involved, read chapters 6, 7, 10 and 11b of James and Gilliland (2005, p176 - 262 and p. 369 – 444).


Summarise the reading material using the following headings:


a. Natural disasters:

   o Psychological consequences

   o Coping principles for victims

   o Management principles for crisis workers


b. Man-made disasters:

   o Psychological consequences

   o Coping principles for victims

   o Management principles for crisis workers


c. Family and sexual violence:

   o Psychological consequences

   o Coping principles for victims

   o Management principles for crisis workers


d. Injury, chronic and life-threatening illness:

   o Psychological consequences

   o Coping principles for victims

   o Management principles for crisis workers


4. (Module 4)

a. Study addendum A for a full picture of the strength perspective.

b. Study addendum B in order to grasp the value of an ecological perspective during victim empowerment

c. Study Addendum C for an outline of participatory action in the case of trauma management

d. Study Addendum D for an indication of the living context of the traumatized child

e. Addendum E gives you an indication of what is expected from you for your portfolio.


4.5 (Module 5) Read chapter 15 of James and Gilliland (2005, p. 553 – 586) as well as Kleinke (1998) chapters3, 11, 12 and 15 as well as Everly and Lating (1995, p. 267 – 280) to enable you to understand the pro-active and preventative model of victim empowerment and to plan a training programme for the employees of a disaster management centre.





The prescribed book is:


• James, R.K. & Gilliland, B.E. (2005). Crisis intervention strategies. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole

The entire book is used. The book is available from Van Schaik’s bookstore. Additional learning material: (Copies provided with learning material).

• Everly, G.S. & Lating, J.M. (1995). Psychotraumatology. New York: Plenum Press

• Greenstone, J.L. & Leviton, S.C. (2002). Elements of crisis intervention. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole

• Kleinke, C.L. (1998). Coping with life’s challenges. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole





Learners must complete all three of the following assignments:


Assignment 1 – Ms Annette Weyers


a. Do the 6 assignments in Addendum E

b. Using any one of the three conceptual frameworks and any example of a Type 1

or Type 2 trauma explain how you will go about in planning project for traumatized children on a prevention and intervention level.


4XA4 pages each for (a) and (b) (Font: Arial; line spacing 1, 5). 25 Marks


Assignment 2 – Mr Edwin du Plessiss


Study all the relevant literature in your reader and then design a web site for the sharing of your own critical reflective views, gained knowledge and possible experiences regarding trauma management. The main purpose of your website should be to:


• describe the process of crisis intervention and trauma management.

• describe the impact of traumatic experiences on victims and disaster management


• describe the processes involved in trauma management for victims of one type of



Each web page on your web site should include your own interpretation and evaluation of the above topics. Each web page should also have a strong convincing character and include acknowledgement of the literature sources consulted.

Your website should consist of a sufficient number of different individual web pages (i.e. sections), including:


a. Your Home Page. Provide a catchy title for your web site on the home page that will communicate the message of your web site appropriately. Also list or indicate all the topics/sections/links you included as separate web pages on the website, on this homepage. (Hint: Remember that web pages are usually viewed on computer screens. The copies of your web pages should therefore be in landscape format. (Font size at least 12; 1,5 spacing; all margins at least 2 cm each.


b. A number of no more than seven pages (including the home page) that highlight information on, as well as your reflective views and possible experiences on the above topics, specifically in the context of your own organization.


Assignment 3 – Mr Edwin du Plessiss


Design a training programme for the employees of a disaster management centre that enable you to understand the pro-active and preventative models of victim empowerment.





Assignments          3      30%

Practical exercise   1      30%

Examination          1      40%

Total                            100%


The assignments will constitute 30% of the final mark. There will be a final examination at the end of the year, which will carry 40% of the total marks. Students should also have to complete a practical assignment which constitutes 30% of the final mark. Details of the practical will be provided during the May contact session.


3 contact sessions will be held throughout the year. The practical examination will be held during the 3rd contact session, information needed for this practical examination will be given out to students during the 3rd contact session. Please find attached an example of the practical examination.


Attach at the back of all assignments submitted a plagiarism declaration form found at the end of each study guide.

To pass the course a sub-minimum of 40% must be obtained in the examination.


To pass the completed course a combined average of at least 50% must be achieved.





Please do not hesitate to contact the lecturers if you need more information about any aspect of the course. We would like to wish you everything of the best for this course and trust that it will be a stimulating and rewarding experience for all involved.





1 Background


The Eden District Municipality is responsible for disaster management within its area of responsibility. In order to adhere to the requirements as stipulated by the Disaster Management Act (Act 57 of 2002) and the National Disaster Management Framework, the Municipality should execute the following:

   • Disaster Risk Assessment

   • Disaster Management Plan

   • Disaster Contingency Plans


The Municipality appointed a disaster manager but he/she realizes that he/she does not have the necessary skills and expertise to perform the required functions as mentioned above. Luckily this person realizes that this is the task of a multi-disciplinary team of experts and appointed a private company to do the following:

   • Conduct a disaster risk assessment for the municipality

   • Develop disaster management plans

   • Develop disaster contingency plans for the municipality


The private company is also very clever and decided to appoint a multi-disciplinary team of experts to complete the task. You are part of that multi-disciplinary team of experts and all of you should work together to complete the task.


2 Team of experts


Each one of you represents a specific area of expertise, yet you are part of a team and should be able to contribute and assist in other fields of expertise. Team work and leadership is very important in this task. As a team you should decide on priorities, team leaders, who is doing what, who will assist who, who will get what information where etc., etc.


Each one of you will represent the specialist field in one of your final year modules as shown on the attached table – except for one group that will have to work without an expert from DiM 701. The GIS expert will probably have the most work since he/she should capture most of the information on GIS maps. The rest of the group should help in gathering all the relevant information.


3 Task


The following should be executed by all groups:

   • Identify the possible disasters in the area

   • Prioritize the five most serious hazards in the area and show the methodology used to prioritize these hazards

   • Map the socio-economic status of communities in the district according to the socio- economic results

   • Identify and map the vulnerable situations in the George local Municipal area (Ignore the other districts)

    • Identify and map the high and medium disaster risk areas for floods, droughts, and fires in the George municipal area and show the methodology that you will follow to determine these. In order to do this you need to show the following:

        o Determine hazardrating (probability,frequency,intensity,etc.)

        o Determine vulnerability rating (lives, structural damage, financial lost, economic impact, political, etc., etc.)

        o Determine capacity to deal withhazard or resilience etc.


The completed risk assessment should inform you as a consultancy group as to the contents of a disaster management plan. Use this information to develop a disaster management plan for the George local municipality. Ignore the other municipalities in the jurisdiction of Eden District Municipality. Part of your disaster management plan is contingency plans. Make sure that you include the following:

   • Media and communication plan for disaster risk reduction as well as during disasters and the post disaster phase

   • Trauma management plan to prepare people for possible disasters and to assist people during and after disasters.

   • Highlight and present a report as part of the disaster management plan on the cultural divides and roles that culture play in disaster risk reduction. Make sure that the possible cultural differences are mapped on GIS and how these might impact on the total disaster risk picture of the whole Eden district municipality irrespective of the hazards.

   • Political and strategic planning will have a role on the future risk profile of this region. Discuss two main scenarios that might have a positive or negative impact on the disaster risk profile of this region and also make some recommendations regarding the strategy for future development planning in this region.

   • The influx of a large number of people increases the pressure on health services and also creates unhealthy conditions in certain areas. Identify these areas and develop a plan to prevent any health related disasters from happening in the George local municipal area.


4 Data collection


Some data are provided on a CD available from the DiMTEC office. The shape files for the GIS maps are also available on CD

More data is available on the web site of Eden District Municipality at www.edendm.co.za A number of reports can be obtained form this web site, That includes a socio-economic study, environmental study and others. Groups are also free to access any other sources for information.


5 Presentation


Each group should present their results in the following format.

   • A written report discussing the disaster risk assessment with annexes if needed

   • GIS maps with the necessary layers that show all the relevant information in support to the written report.

   • A written disaster management plan for the George Local Municipality that includes inter alia:

         o Media and communications plan

         o Trauma management plan

         o Strategic plan

         o Health plan

         o Other contingency plans fo rfloods, fires and droughts should also be included.


All members of each group must be able to present a specific section of the work – your field of expertise - to a board of referees. Make use of power point presentations to prepare you presentations. Each group will have 1.5 hour to present their results (12 minutes per person).


6 Allocation of marks


This assignment will count 30% of the final mark of each subject and students within a specific group will receive the same marks. It is therefore important for students within a group to work together and support each other as part of a multi disciplinary team.



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